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تاریخ:جمعه 1 خرداد 1394-11:25 ب.ظ

جناس

جناس:
 
یک‌سانی و هم‌سانی دو یا چند واژه در واج‌های سازنده را « جناس » گویند.
 
1. جناس تام : آن است که کلمات  جناس فقط از لحاظ معنی اختلاف دارند و در شکل و صورت
 
ظاهری کاملا برابرند .( یکسانی دو واژه در تعداد و ترکیب واج ها ) ارزش موسیقایی جناس تام در
 
سخن بسیار است .
 
2. جناس ناقص : آن است که کلمات جناس علاوه بر معنی در یک صامت یا مصوّت هم متفاوت
 
هستند .
 
انواع جناس ناقص :
 
نکته :: گفتیم اگر کلمات جناس در ظاهر کاملا شبیه هم باشند تام هستند در غیر این صورت
 
جناس ناقص به شسمار می آیند .
 
1. جناس ناقص حرکتی :  یکسانی دو یا چند واژه در صامت ها و اختلاف آن ها در مصوّت های
 
کوتاه  را می گویند .
 
نکته : تکرار صامت ها ، موسیقی درونی مصراع ها را پدید می آورد .
 
مثال : شکر کند چرخ فلک از مَلِک و مُلک و مَلَک / کز کرم و بخشش او ، روشن و بخشنده شدم .
 
توضیح : واژگان « مَلِک / مُک / مَلَک » در صامت ها مشترک اند فقط در مصوت های کوتاه اختلاف
 
دارند .
 
واژه ی « مُلک » با واژگان « مَلَک » و « مَلِک » طبق تعریف  کتاب جناس ندارد هر چند در متن
 
کتاب درسی جناس ناقص فرض شده اند .
 
نکته :
 
الف: جناس ناقص در افزایش موسیقی لفظی بیت یا مصراع مؤثر است .
 
ب : قدما این گونه جناس را « جناس ناقص » می نامیدند . 
 
2. جناس ناقص اختلافی ( حرفی ) : اختلاف دو کلمه در حرف اول ، وسط یا آخر است . کلماتی
 
که علاوه بر معنی در یک صامت متفاوت اند .
 
مثال : هر تیر که در کیش است گر بر دل ریش آید  /  ما نیز یکی باشیم از جمله ی قربان ها
 
توضیح : واژگان « کیش » و « ریش » جناس ناقص اختلافی حروفی دارند چون صامت « ک »  و
 
« ر » در دو واژه مختلف است .
 
نکته :
 
1. جناس ناقص حروفی نیز در آفرینش موسیقی لفظی مؤثر است .
 
2. جناس میان دو واژه را جناس ناقص می خوانیم که اختلاف آن ها بیش تر از یک حرف نباشد.
 
برای مثال « یار » و « یاران » جناس نیستند .
 
3. این گونه جناس را قدما ، مضارع ، لاحق ، مرف می نامیدند .
 
نکته : 
 
1. منظور از حرف همان صامت ها و مصوت های بلند است .
 
2. حرفی را که در اول و آخر نباشد وسط می گوئیم .
 
جناس ناقص افزایشی :
 
جناس ناقص افزایشی ؛ اختلاف در دو واژه است در معنی و تعداد حروف. که علاوه بر معنی در
 
تعداد حروف نیز متفاوت اند یعنی یکی از کلمات جناس یک حرف در اول یا وسط یا آخر نسبت به
 
دیگر کلمه ی جناس اضافه دارد .
 
مثال برای جناس ناقص افزایشی در حرف اول :
 
دلا رنج حسودان مرنج و واثق باش  /  که بد به خاطر امیدوار ما نرسد .
 
توضیح : واژه ی « مرنج » یک حرف صامت نسبت به « رنج » بیش تر دارد ← جناس نلقص
 
افزایشی در حرف اول
 
این نوع جناس را قدما « جناس زاید یا مذَیَّل » می گفتند .
 
مثال : برای جناس ناقص افزایشی در حرف وسط :
 
دستم نداد قوّت رفتن به پیش دوست   /   چندی به پای رفتم و چندی به سر شدم .
 
توضیح : واژه ی « دوست » در تقابل با واژه ی « دست » یک حرف در وسط بیش تر دارد .
 
جناس ناقص افزایشی در حرف وسط
 
توجه : ضمیر پیوسته ی « م » در « دستم » یک واژه ی مستقل و در نقش مضاف الیه است لذا
 
جزء اصل کلمه نیست .
 
مثال : برای جناس ناقص افزایشی در حرف آخر :
 
« اشک من رنگ شفق یافت ز بی مهری یار   /   طالع بی شفقت بین که در این کار چه کرد .»
 
توضیح : واژه ی « شفقت » در مصراع دوم در تقابل با واژه ی « شفق » در مصراع اول یک حرف
 
در آخر بیش تر دارد .← جناس ناقص افزایشی
 
* جمع بندی کلی در موردانواع جناس :جناس در تقسیم بندی اولیه به دو نوع تقسیم می شود :
 
1.جناس تام 
 
2. جناس ناقص
 
* جناس ناقص در سه حالت می تواند در کلام به کار برود :
 
1 . اختلاف در مصوّت کوتاه ( حرکتی )
 
2. اختلاف در نوع حروف ( اختلافی )
 
3. اختلاف در تعداد حروف ( افزایشی )
 
* ارزش جناس ناقص به موسیقی لفظی است که در کلام می آفریند.
 
حال با توجه به  توضیحات مربوط به « جناس » به سؤالات زیر پاسخ دهید :
 
1. « جناس تامّ » به کار رفته در بیت زیر را ، مشخص کرده و دلیل خود را بنویسید .
 
« نه عجب که قلب دشمن شکنی به روز هیجا   /  تو که قلب دوستان را به مقاربت شکستی »
 
2.در بیت زیر بین کدام کلمات ، « جناس » به کار رفته است ؟ « نوع » هر جناس را بنویسید .
 
« کفر است در طریقت ما کینه داشتن   /   آیین ماست سینه چو آیینه داشتن  »
 
3. میان کدام واژه  در بیت زیر ،«جناس »به کار رفته است ؟«نوع »هر یک راجناس را بنویسید.
 
« گو شمع نیارید در این جمع که امشب   /   در مجلس ما ، ماه رخ دوست تمام است »
 
4. در بیت زیر بین کدام کلمات جناس به کار رفته است ؟ نوع هر یک را مشخص کنید .
 
« ساقی به نور باده بر افروز جام ما    /    مطرب بگو که کار جهان شد به کام ما »
 
5. آیا واژه ی « می کند » و « می کند » در بیت زیر ، جناس تام است ؟ چرا ؟
 
« بشنو این نی چون شکایت می کند   /   وز جدایی ها حکایت می کند . »
 
6. در بیت زیر بین کدام کلمات جناس وجود دارد ؟ نوع آن رامشخص کرده ودلیل خودرابنویسید .
 
« وانکه گیسوی تو را رسم تطاول آموخت   /    هم تواند کرمش داد من مسکین داد . »
 
7. کدام دو کلمه ، نمی توانند به عنوان جناس به کار بروند ؟
 
الف ) شرار ، سواد    ب ) جوی ، جود    ج ) روان ، روان     د ) رسید ، رشید 
 
8. کدام کلمه ها در بیت « عنان مپیچ که گر می زنی به شمشیرم /  سپر کنم سر و دستت ندارم
 
از فتراک .» جناس دارند ؟
 
الف ) سر ، سپر    ب ) سر ، دست      ج ) شمشیر ، سپر       د ) عنان ، فتراک
 
9. در بیت زیر ، جناس هاو نوع آن ها را مشخص کنید .
 
«  کار دلم به جان رسد ، کارد به اسخوان رسد  /   ناله کنم بگویدم دم مزن ئو بیان مکن »
 
 
حال دوستان عزیز با توجه به توضیحات داده شده در این پست « تفاوت های سجع با جناس » را بنویسید . می توانید در قسمت نظرات همین پست پاسخ بدهید .



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یکشنبه 9 تیر 1398 09:23 ق.ظ
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یکشنبه 26 خرداد 1398 12:01 ق.ظ
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دوشنبه 20 خرداد 1398 01:22 ب.ظ
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شنبه 11 خرداد 1398 10:52 ب.ظ
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سه شنبه 7 خرداد 1398 11:53 ب.ظ
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پنجشنبه 26 اردیبهشت 1398 04:11 ب.ظ
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پنجشنبه 26 اردیبهشت 1398 08:43 ق.ظ
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چهارشنبه 25 اردیبهشت 1398 10:35 ب.ظ
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دوشنبه 23 اردیبهشت 1398 04:59 ق.ظ
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جمعه 20 اردیبهشت 1398 10:24 ق.ظ
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دوشنبه 16 اردیبهشت 1398 09:27 ب.ظ
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پنجشنبه 12 اردیبهشت 1398 06:56 ب.ظ
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